You are here

Frequently Asked Questions About Colorectal Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions About Colorectal Cancer | ASCRS

COLON CANCER AWARENESS MONTH

March is colon cancer awareness month, and a great time to find out about colorectal cancer. Here are some of the most frequently asked questions.  Ask your healthcare provider if you have additional questions.

  1. WHAT IS COLORECTAL CANCER?

Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon and rectum that begins with the development of pre-cancerous polyps from the lining of the colon and rectum.

  1. WHAT IS A POLYP?

Polyps are mushroom-like growths that form when cells lining the colon grow, divide and reproduce in an unhealthy, disorderly way. Polyps can become cancerous over time, invading the colon wall and surrounding blood vessels, and spreading to other parts of the body.

  1. WHAT CAUSES COLORECTAL CANCER?

The exact causes of colorectal cancer are unknown, but the disease appears to be caused by both inherited and lifestyle factors. Lifestyle factors - such as cigarette smoking, lack of physical exercise, and obesity - may increase the risk of developing the disease. Genetic factors may determine a person's susceptibility to the disease,whereas dietary and other lifestyle factors may determine which at-risk individuals actually go on to develop the disease. Most of the time no identifiable cause is found for the development of colorectal cancer in any given individual, and it is simply due to random genetic changes that have occurred in the cells lining the colon or rectum.

  1. HOW COMMON IS COLORECTAL CANCER?

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States, and the third most common cancer overall. This year, more than 56,000 Americans will die from colorectal cancer and more than 140,000 new cases will be diagnosed. In fact, more women over the age of 75 die from colorectal cancer than from breast cancer. Eighty to 90 million Americans (approximately 25 percent of the U.S. population) are considered at risk because of age or other factors. (American Cancer Society website)

  1. WHO IS AT RISK FOR COLORECTAL CANCER?

Men and women ages 50 or older are at almost equal risk of developing colorectal cancer. Those who have a personal or family history of colorectal cancer or polyps are at higher risk of developing the disease. Anyone who has a long-term personal history of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn's Disease) also is at higher risk.

  1. HOW CAN YOU PREVENT COLORECTAL CANCER?

See your doctor for yearly screenings if you are aged 50 or older. Be sure to maintain a diet low in animal fat and high in fruits, vegetables and fiber. Get regular exercise and avoid cigarette smoking. Keep alcohol consumption in moderation. Colon Cancer screening tests can identify and allow removal of pre-cancerous polyps and prevent the development of cancer.

  1. WHAT ARE THE SCREENING OPTIONS FOR DETECTING COLORECTAL CANCER?

Screening tests are the best way to find and remove polyps before they become cancerous, or to find an early cancer, when treatment can be most effective.

Several screening options exist. These include the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema, and colonoscopy. Patients should talk to their colorectal surgeon or other healthcare provider to find out which screening method is right for them.

WHAT IS A COLON AND RECTAL SURGEON?

Colon and rectal surgeons are experts in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. They have completed advanced surgical training in the treatment of these diseases as well as full general surgical training. Board-certified colon and rectal surgeons complete residencies in general surgery and colon and rectal surgery, and pass intensive examinations conducted by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. They are well-versed in the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the colon, rectum and anus and are able to perform routine screening examinations and surgically treat conditions if indicated to do so.

DISCLAIMER

The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention and management of disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. These brochures are inclusive but not prescriptive. Their purpose is to provide information on diseases and processes, rather than dictate a specific form of treatment. They are intended for the use of all practitioners, health care workers and patients who desire information about the management of the conditions addressed. It should be recognized that these brochures should not be deemed inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of methods of care reasonably directed to obtain the same results. The ultimate judgment regarding the propriety of any specific procedure must be made by the physician in light of all the circumstances presented by the individual patient.